The timeline involved is going to be important should you have a diagnosis of cancer for a few reasons. You mentioned 2 years went by from the time you were told you had a UTI until you were told you might have Bladder cancer? Is that correct? You were seen 6 times over the course of 2 years and diagnosed with a UTI every time? How many times were cultures taken? How much time was it from when your culture came back negative until you were told you may have cancer? Answers to these questions are necessary in order to have a better understanding of the facts and potential theories of negligence.
In addition to notifying a health care provider that you intend to file a lawsuit, prior to filing suit in most jurisdictions, the injured patient must usually submit an affidavit or certificate from a qualified expert. This affidavit or certificate is usually completed by another doctor who can testify that there are reasonable grounds to determine that medical negligence or medical malpractice took place in a given case. Again, the exact requirements of the certificate vary from state to state and across jurisdictions.
Causation can be the most challenging element for plaintiffs to prove in a failure to diagnose cases. A plaintiff must prove that the misdiagnosis caused the injury to worsen more than it would have had a correct diagnosis been made. This means, for example, that a plaintiff will need to show that a delayed cancer diagnosis resulted in the patient's wrongful death, whereas the patient would have lived longer if it had been caught at the right time by the defendant.
In short, you can sue a doctor when all of these things are true; he didn’t follow reasonable care, didn’t show a property duty of care, you suffered a material loss and there is a direct link between your material loss and the doctor’s failure in his duty of care. Be aware though that doctors have mandatory liability insurance through the Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA). The lawyers CMPA hires are going to rigorously defend the claim which can make the lawsuit a long one. As always, consult with a lawyer if you want to find out whether you would be successful if you started a lawsuit, and how long such a lawsuit would take.
Alternatively, the amount of pain and suffering a person experiences can be valued based on the amount, frequency, and duration, of medical care, treatment, or medication, the person needs to recover and get by. Additionally, permanent injuries, including disfigurements, or severe injuries that upend a person’s life, will often correspond to higher awards for pain and suffering.
People hurt each other’s feelings all the time.  As such, courts have held that an IIED claim must be based on more than bad conduct.  Liability does not extend to mere insults, indignities, threats, annoyances, or petty oppressions.[3] Instead, the conduct must be so heinous and beyond the standards of civilized decency that it is utterly intolerable in a civilized society.[4] The legal classic formulation of the standard is whether the conduct would cause a reasonable person to explain, “Outrageous!”[5]
This article is for informational purposes only and not for the purpose of providing legal advice. You should contact your attorney to obtain advice with respect to any particular issue or problem. Use of and access to this blog or any of the email links contained within the site do not create an attorney-client relationship between the author and the user or browser. The opinions expressed at or through this site are the opinions of the individual author and may not reflect the opinions of any law firm or Psychology Today.
Finally, in any medical malpractice case -- in any type of lawsuit for that matter -- plaintiffs need to be mindful of time limits for going to court and getting the lawsuit process started. You need to file the initial document (the complaint) within a certain amount of time after you suffered the harm that led to the lawsuit. These deadlines are set by state laws (statutes), so they’re called “statutes of limitations.” In some jurisdictions, the statute of limitations may not begin to run until the discovery of the injury. For example, in California, a patient has three years to file a medical malpractice lawsuit after the harm occurs, or one year after the harm is discovered (whichever comes first).
Significantly, your attorney can only use these examples of loss to illustrate your injuries if you provide it to him or her. If your case is in litigation you will most likely sit for a deposition (your testimony given under oath before a court reporter who is taking down questions directed to you by the defense attorney and your responses). In preparing for your deposition, your attorney may ask you to explain how this accident has affected your life. Be ready to give real life examples so that your attorney can best advocate on your behalf.
Providing a range can also be beneficial in allowing the jury to make the determination as to what the final number will be. Your attorney can then ask the jury, “what is missing out on an activity you loved to do with your spouse worth weekly? $5? $25? $100?” If that person is 40 years old at the time of the crash and is expected to live another 42 years, the price for that loss over a lifetime ranges from $10,920 to $218,400. Presenting multiple stories from different witnesses demonstrating the extent of your pain and suffering damages and including a monetary range for each will allow the jury a viable opportunity to compensate you for that loss.

The civil tort of assault is premised on the fact that a person says something or otherwise implies that he or she will have some type of harmful or offensive contact with the victim and the victim has reasonable apprehension of this contact occurring. This tort does not require that the contact actually occur, but merely requires that the victim has the apprehension that it will. In the medical context, this may occur if a doctor threatens to take medical action against the patient’s will.
But it doesn’t get much more complex than a medical malpractice case. You’ll need to prove complicated legal and medical issues like the applicable medical standard of care that the doctor should have complied with in your case, and you’ll need to be prepared to refute the other side when they come to the table with their own medical evidence. What’s more, many states require medical malpractice plaintiffs to jump through certain procedural hoops at various points in the case.
Any condition can be misdiagnosed, but there are some that doctors fail to diagnose at a much higher rate than others. Since a great deal of cases of misdiagnosis occur in emergency rooms, many of the commonly misdiagnosed conditions are incredibly serious. Patients who are taken to emergency rooms with symptoms of a heart attack are often told that they are having indigestion or a panic attack. A patient who is having a stroke may be told that his symptoms indicate he is experiencing a bad migraine headache. Doctors can also make mistakes when diagnosing cancer. A doctor may fail to order the appropriate tests or may misread test results and tell the patient that he does not have cancer, when he actually does.
In July 2003, Toney delivered a boy with profound deformities, including partial arms and legs. Toney sued Dr. Goyal and Chester County Hospital in 2005 for negligent infliction of emotional distress, alleging that Dr. Goyal did not prepare her for the shock of witnessing the birth. Toney said she experiences ongoing grief, rage, nightmares, nausea, hysteria and insomnia. The lawsuit did not include a medical negligence claim.
When my father passed from MRSA acquired after open heart surgery (acquired either in the hospital or rehab center) I called 40 attorneys and was told the exact same thing as the article states: He was too old, had lost his viability (translate earning potential) and had no wife (she had died). Most of them would not tell me why they would not take the case, but one did. It's not only hard to hear that your elderly parent has no value legally, but this is exactly why doctors and hospitals and other medical facilities continue their poor attempts at keeping hospitals as clean as possible. They answer to no one.
Did the change in lifestyle trigger disturbing depression or anxiety? If you have never experienced depression before, many describe it as feeling despondent, as if a black cloud were hanging over your head. Sometimes, if the injury is taking a long time to heal, you may feel hopeless, that you will never get better. Examine the differences in your lifestyle to determine the negative impact of your personal injury.
Damages for pain and suffering, including mental anguish, date back to Roman delicts, which is equivalent to today's tort system. The basic Roman delicts were iniuria (injury to person) and damnum iniuria datum (damage to property, including slaves). Under iniuria, the wronged party had to show that the tortfeasor acted willfully and intentionally to recover damages. The action was based on the plaintiff's "sense of outrage" and not on actual economic loss. Therefore the plaintiff could be compensated for "pain or distress of mind or body" in addition to any pecuniary damages. Whereas iniuria required a showing of ill will, damnum iniuria datum only required a showing of negligence. Eventually, Roman law evolved into only compensating for pain and suffering where the tort was intentional and only providing pecuniary damages in the sole case of negligence.
About three-quarters of mediations result in a satisfactory outcome, often within a day, but mediation is not legally binding until a written agreement is signed and the case can proceed to court. The NHS Litigation Authority launched a mediation service in 2014 for cases that have reached the compensation stage (contact the trust involved directly for more information). The Tutu Foundation also offers a mediation service (tutufoundationuk.org, tel 01865 514830).

Damages for pain and suffering, including mental anguish, date back to Roman delicts, which is equivalent to today's tort system. The basic Roman delicts were iniuria (injury to person) and damnum iniuria datum (damage to property, including slaves). Under iniuria, the wronged party had to show that the tortfeasor acted willfully and intentionally to recover damages. The action was based on the plaintiff's "sense of outrage" and not on actual economic loss. Therefore the plaintiff could be compensated for "pain or distress of mind or body" in addition to any pecuniary damages. Whereas iniuria required a showing of ill will, damnum iniuria datum only required a showing of negligence. Eventually, Roman law evolved into only compensating for pain and suffering where the tort was intentional and only providing pecuniary damages in the sole case of negligence.
For example, imagine that you repeatedly told your doctor that you had joint pain and a rash, and the doctor just shrugged off your comments about the joint pain as the normal process of aging and gave you an ointment for the rash. He ignored your family history of psoriasis and overlooked the connection between the two symptoms that could have led to a diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis until after you suffered severe complications -- like damage to your heart valve.
If a doctor fails to make an accurate and timely diagnosis of a harmful medical condition, patients may pursue a legal remedy by filing a medical malpractice lawsuit. One key question in these kinds of cases is whether the doctor breached the applicable "medical standard of care" under the circumstances. In other words, would a similarly-trained doctor in the same medical community have spotted the health problem (or identified it within a shorter period of time)? In the sections that follow, we’ll discuss some common misdiagnosis scenarios, and illustrate how a medical malpractice case might proceed.  
Draft what is known as a "demand letter" to the doctor or other professional you believe is guilty of malpractice. In the demand letter you set forth the general nature of your claim, including the damages you suffered. Set forth the amount of money and other conditions you are willing to accept to settle the case. Set a specific deadline for the professional to satisfy the demand made in your letter. Advise that if the deadline is not met, you will take further legal action.

While some medical errors are unavoidable, and things go wrong even when the utmost skill and care is used, doctors and other health care providers can be held legally responsible for any injuries that result from the provision of negligent or sub-standard care to patients. If you decide to file a personal injury lawsuit against a doctor, it will most likely be under a legal theory known as medical malpractice.
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